A Year of Change - Reflection on My Website's Architecture Update


I bought the domain developersam.com in February 2015 and officially started my own website. Before that, I hosted my website on the free tk domain, but I decided to remove that kind of sketchiness when I received my first scholarship. The website is poorly maintained, received no update for almost a year since it's published. After I was admitted to Cornell in December 2016, I started to update my website more often, but still not as frequent as I would do right now. In a quite slow progress, the website finally got to an acceptable shape at the end of July last year.

Here shows the original website:

Original Website

Since its initial set up and until now, the website is on the JVM stack. Although I was using PHP for my school's club's project, it was done for legacy code reasons. I chose JVM stack for my own website to give it a fresh start with the benefits of static type checking and easy-to-use object-oriented features.

The website was hosted on Google App Engine, the only reliable and well-known PaaS that was effectively free for small personal websites. I forced myself to learn Java a long time ago simply because I want to host my website free of charge and GAE only supported Python and Java at that time.

What's Running on My Website A Year Ago#

In the summer holidays before going to Cornell, I had a lot of free time and performed a large-scale update on my website. Some small gadget-like apps using deprecated Google Cloud APIs had been removed; the frontend JS code had been rewritten to improve readability; more importantly, I wrote a small library to generate HTML and CSS code for some material design components, supported by the Material Design Lite library.

Here is how my website looks a year ago:

Website A Year Ago

The frontend code generation is actually not fancy at all. It's not like SSR for React or Angular; it's SSR done by the almost dead technology called JSTL on JSP. It worked at the time it was built because my website only contains simple stuff, mostly static content.

I also developed a blog engine for my website that is technologically simple and notoriously hard to use for ordinary users. You basically wrote your blog post in plain HTML in a designated folder of the app. Once finished, you notify the server to index that page. Since it's just some simple content display where most of the work was done by the backend, the JSTL approach still worked.

Besides that, there were only some trivial and uninteresting frontend pages generated by the JSTL library.

Adoption and Problems#

When I got to Cornell during the orientation week, some orientation leaders introduced some sort of time management skills. I was not interested by their pen-and-paper approach. I would prefer an app approach that supported some sort of automation. I then quickly developed Scheduler and hosted it on my website.

A month later, I participated in BigRed Hacks. We built ChunkReader, a service to extract key information and summary from a given text. Again, it was an app with a complicated backend workflow and a quite simple frontend display. It was built based on my JSTL library. It worked, but I was already somewhat unsatisfied with it.

My JSTL library was based on a chain of complex inheritance relation, which was easy to design initially but was hard to use and maintain on a sleepy hackathon night. It did provide server-side rendering which is great, but we lost the ability to write HTML code with auto-completion in IDE. What's more, it forced me to stick to it.

Here is a example showing how confusing it is:

private void printSchedulerItemContent() throws JspException, IOException {
CardTextBorderedTag cardTextTagForDeadline = new CardTextBorderedTag();
cardTextTagForDeadline.setParent(this); // Comment: WHAT IS THIS?!
cardTextTagForDeadline.setBodyContent("Deadline: " + schedulerItem.getDeadline());
CardTextBorderedTag cardTextTagForDaysLeft = new CardTextBorderedTag();
cardTextTagForDaysLeft.setBodyContent("Days Left: " + schedulerItem.getDaysLeft());
cardTextTagForDaysLeft.doTag(); // Comment: What's the side effect?

I later tried to switch to the Spring Framework. It had a much better IDE support due to its importance in the industry, but its annotation based configuration was very annoying to me and significantly slowed on the startup time, which was critical for GAE. Despite my dislike for Spring, I got a taste of what a web framework should be like.

In the final assignment of CS 2112, we were recommended to use SparkJava as our backend framework. This framework enabled a declarative style of backend code with Java 8's newly added support for functional programming. I believed I knew what should be like for my website's architecture.

The First Redesign#

In the winter holidays, I had a relatively unsuccessful experience to develop my own web framework. It finally replaced the old plain Servlet and provided support for functional programming, but the design was still awkward.

Here is a weird, counter-intuitive example.

object SchedulerWriteItemService : StructuredInputService<SchedulerItemData>(
inType = SchedulerItemData::class.java
) {
override val uri: String = "/apis/scheduler/write"
override val method: HttpMethod = HttpMethod.POST
override fun output(input: SchedulerItemData): Boolean {
return input.writeToDatabase()

However, several important transitions had been made.

Firstly, I finally migrated my website's legacy Java code to Kotlin. This is what enabled me to write the simple library with ease by Kotlin's expressive type system. It also gave me a hands-on opportunity to learn the Kotlin language by concrete migration examples to demonstrate what's available in Kotlin. Kotlin's insistence of internal instead of package-private visibility forced me to gradually split my website's code into modules.

Secondly, I started to use Gradle as the build tool instead of the IntelliJ configuration. It implied a much consistent IDE importing experience directly from source code.

More importantly, I decided to use a modern frontend framework. Since I didn't know the "correct" way to write the frontend code that is scalable and maintainable, I chose Angular for its reputation of being like Java and imposing a strict style. My initial implementation was quite sketchy, but the overall structure remained the same under several re-structuring, thanks to Angular's elegant design.

At the end of the winter holiday and the beginning of the new semester, I migrated the legacy Google User's API that is specific to App Engine to Firebase Auth that allowed the simple design of Single Page Application that Angular enforced.

The frontend finally dropped the legacy JSTL and embrace the latest Angular stack, but the backend still had a long path of modernization to go.

Migration to Google App Engine Flex#

App Engine introduced the Java 8 runtime about a year ago. I migrated to it and I observed a much worse startup time that was almost unbearable. The issue was raised in a Google Groups but did not get much response from Google. Also, there were not many exciting updates on App Engine in those days. I felt that App Engine, especially the Java runtime, looked like an unloved child.

With the benefit of using whatever technology I would like, I started the migration to the flexible runtime. I tried the Vert.x stack, which supports the event-driven and non-blocking model of the server. The migration was very painful: Google App Engine Standard and Flex used different Datastore APIs, so almost all the database related code must be rewritten; Vert.x enforced a non-blocking model, which created callback hell so all the REST API facing code must be rewritten. These required changes effectively meant that all the backend code must be rewritten!

Here is an example of a code snippet harmed by the callback hell:

// Comment: Awkward Consumer
fun getAllSchedulerItems(user: FirebaseUser, printer: Consumer<List<SchedulerItem>>) {
val filterUser = PropertyFilter.eq("userEmail", user.email)
val filterDeadline = PropertyFilter.ge("deadline", Timestamp.of(yesterday))
val filter = filterUser and filterDeadline
Database.query(kind = "SchedulerItem", filter = filter) { s ->
// Comment: Extra Level of Indentation
.filter { it.totalHoursLeft >= 0 }
.consumeBy(consumer = printer)

The migration led to a modern backend architecture, but a much worse code style due to the callback hell introduced by Vert.x. During the spring hackathon, I got really angry with the callback hell while figuring out the issue with the suddenly broken Firebase. I was determined to fix the issue in the summer.

Summer Update#


The summer update started with the database. During an internship where I had complete control to develop a system for the client, I chose the Kotlin stack for backend. I noticed that JetBrains, creator of Kotlin, had developed a SQL library Exposed. The library supported type-safe operations on the database without much effort to awkwardly annotate the classes and creating getters solely for the library. It was achieved solely by Kotlin's expressive type system with little reflection.

Unfortunately, it did not support NoSQL database, such as Google Cloud Datastore. I studied the source code of Exposed quite extensively. I found that most of the reflection used to adapt between the JDBC layer and the type-safe layer; I also found that much of the usage of reflection was not required to adapt to Google's Datastore. I quickly coded the prototype in a week and migrated all of my website's database code to the new library, which I called TypedStore.

Here is the nice CRUD example copied from the GitHub repo's README:

// Create
val obj = FooEntity.insert {
// You need to explicitly declare all the fields. Otherwise, it will throw an exception.
table.bar gets "haha"
// The second way of setting things
this[FooTable.answer42] = 42
// The type system ensures `this[BarTable.bar] = 42` is a compile time error.
// Read
val entities = FooEntity.query {
// filter, order, and limit are all optional
filter { table.answer42 eq 42 }
order { table.answer42.desc() }
withLimit(limit = 3)
// Update
val updated = FooEntity.update(entity = obj) { FooTable.bar gets "Oh, no!" }
// Delete
fun d() = FooEntity.delete(updated.key)

The library was field-tested with the new Scheduler app with the newly added auto-scheduling feature and an RSS Reader I developed for myself and for future ML sources.

Backend and Frontend#

I also discarded Vert.x and used SparkJava instead. I think running a little inefficiently is so much better than the callback hell for my small personal website. I also introduced pac4j to the codebase to deal with the security issue centrally. I wrote some adapters, implemented a simple friend system based on Firebase Auth, and published that in a separate library, which I called KineticS.

Here is an example of the much better declaration for routes.

private fun initializeFriendSystemApiHandlers() {
get(path = "/load") { FriendData(user = user) }
get(path = "/get_user_info") {
val email = queryParams("email") ?: badRequest()
GoogleUser.getByEmail(email = email)
post(path = "/add_friend_request") {
val key = queryParamsForKey("responder_user_key")
val successful = FriendRequest.add(requester = user, responderUserKey = key)
if (!successful) {
post(path = "/respond_friend_request") {
val key = queryParamsForKey("requester_user_key")
val approved = queryParams("approved")?.let { it == "true" } ?: badRequest()
val successful = FriendRequest.respond(
responder = user, requesterUserKey = key, approved = approved
if (!successful) {
delete(path = "/remove_friend") {
val friendKey = queryParamsForKey("removed_friend_key")
FriendPair.delete(firstUserKey = user.keyNotNull, secondUserKey = friendKey)

The frontend code mostly remained the same with minor refactoring. A new homepage was introduced to increase its attractiveness.

Here is how it looks like right now:

Current Homepage

You can visit the homepage to see the full page.


App Engine Flex was good, but it was too expensive. Its lowest cost is about $40 a month if you want your server to serve continuously, even if there were 0 visitors. With $1500 GCP credit won from the fall hackathon, I can bear it for a while. However, the credit will expire in March next year and I had to come up with something to avoid paying \$40 a month for nothing.

In the summer holidays, I had the time so I was determined to lower the cost before the hard deadline. I first switched to Google Compute Engine with the worst machine type f1-micro, which was free in the always-free limit. Although I already containerized my app and deployed it on the Compute Engine VM as a container, the deployment was very slow and caused 10 minutes of downtime at least. In the case when I misconfigured something, it took me hours to correctly configure it and sometimes forced me to stay up late to deal with the hardest problem in the world.

I later used Google's Cloud Balancer to dispatch frontend requests to Google Cloud Storage, which almost reduced the frontend downtime to zero. However, the backend still had ten minutes to hours of downtime and this was unacceptable.

About two weeks ago, I started the migration to Kubernetes. My backend part is already containerized, and it only took me two to three hours to containerized my frontend. They were both deployed to a single cluster in Google Kubernetes Engine, under two different workloads. Requests to these two workloads are dispatched by Kubernetes' Ingress. In this week, I started to use the "real" server-side rendering for the Angular app with Angular Universal and node.js server. This marks the real start of running two languages on the same server for my website.

The screenshot below shows the Google Kubernetes Engine's setup:

Website on k8s

The story ends here.

Planned Work for the Next Year (Sketch)#

As you may see, my website is not only a portfolio. It is a mix of a portfolio, a place to field-test my developed apps, and also a mirror of my knowledge of recent web development trends and technology.

Since the website is now running well on Kubernetes Engine, the next step is CI/CD. I also want to break up the monolith into microservices, when Istio becomes mature enough.

I would update the post when I get the work done. Stay tuned!